A clustering analysis of energy and water consumption in US states from 1985 to 2015
Energy and water are critical resources, and virtually every activity that people engage in involves at least one of the two. The overall demand for energy and water in the United States has been increasing, partly as a result of population growth and changing climate conditions. In this study, we examine per capita water and energy consumption from 1985 to 2015 in all 50 states of the United States and the District of Columbia. The analysis is conducted first separately for water and energy consumption and then in a combined manner to identify the main trends and changes over the years. To further account for regional climate conditions, energy consumption data is also standardized using heating and cooling degree days. Line graphs, clustering analysis, and GIS mapping were used to analyze the data. Overall, we find that water use per capita has decreased over the years, while mixed results are found for energy consumption per capita. Moreover, some states do not show significant differences in water use or energy consumption, while others differ significantly. In general, we find that states can be clustered in five to six groups.
CAREER: Understanding the Fundamental Principles Driving Household Energy and Resource Consumption for Smart, Sustainable, and Resilient Communities
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CitationKapousouz, E., Seyrfar, A., Derrible, S., & Ataei, H., 2021 “A clustering analysis of energy and water consumption in U.S. States from 1985 to 2015” in Data Science Applied to Sustainability Analysis, edited by J. Dunn and P. Balaprakash, Elsevier Science, pp. 81-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-817976-5.00005-X