Digested Early Preterm Human Milk Suppresses Tumor Necrosis Factor-induced Inflammation and Cytotoxicity in Intestinal Epithelial Cells
journal contributionposted on 12.09.2018 by Yimin Chen, Aloka L. Patel, Paula P. Meier, Giamila Fantuzzi
Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of digested whole human milk (HM; first sample available after birth from mothers of premature infants) on inflammation, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharides or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to mimic the potential in vivo insults facing the premature infant's gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: Fully differentiated Caco-2 cells were exposed to digested HM (n = 10; samples from 10 different individuals) before stimulation with lipopolysaccharides, TNF, or no stimulation overnight. Inflammation was determined by production of interleukin-8, oxidative stress by levels of F2-isoprostane, and cytotoxicity by released lactate dehydrogenase. RESULTS: HM significantly suppressed interleukin-8 production and cytotoxicity in TNF-stimulated cells, while also suppressing cell death under baseline conditions. Individual HM samples differed widely in their ability to modulate cellular responses. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide evidence that digested HM can reduce both an exaggerated inflammatory response and intestinal damage that contribute to the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis.