Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its Receptors: Role in Airway Inflammation and Remodeling

2013-12-05T00:00:00Z (GMT) by Yutong Zhao Viswanathan Natarajan
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a simple bioactive phospholipid, is present in biological fluids such as plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). It appears to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory role in inflammatory lung diseases. Exogenous LPA promotes inflammatory responses by regulating the expression of chemokines, cytokines, and cytokine receptors in lung epithelial cells. In addition to the modulation of inflammatory responses, LPA regulates cytoskeleton rearrangement and confers protection against lung injury by enhancing lung epithelial cell barrier integrity and remodeling. The biological effects of LPA are mediated through its cell surface G-protein coupled LPA1-7 receptors. The role of LPA receptors in lung fibrosis, asthma, and acute lung injury has been investigated using genetically engineered LPA receptor deficient mice and there appears to be a definitive role for endogenous LPA and its receptors in the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. This review summarizes recent reports on the role of LPA and its receptors in the regulation of lung epithelial inflammatory responses and remodeling.