Production of a biofunctional titanium surface using plasma electrolytic oxidation and glow-discharge plasma for biomedical applications.
journal contributionposted on 02.03.2017 by T Beline, I Da Silva Vieira Marques, AO Matos, ES Ogawa, AP Ricomini-Filho, EC Rangel, NC Da Cruz, Sukotjo C, MT Mathew, R Landers, RLX Consani, MF Mesquita, VAR Barão
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In this study, the authors tested the hypotheses that plasmaelectrolytic oxidation (PEO) and glow-discharge plasma (GDP) would improve the electrochemical, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of commercially pure titanium (cpTi), and that blood proteinadsorption on plasma-treated surfaces would increase. Machined and sandblasted surfaces were used as controls. Standard electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs of 3.0, 6.5, and 9.0) and simulated body fluid. Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, profilometry, Vickers microhardness, and surface energy. For biological assay, the adsorption of blood serum proteins (i.e., albumin, fibrinogen, and fibronectin) was tested. Higher values of polarization resistance and lower values of capacitance were noted for the PEO and GDP groups (p < 0.05). Acidic artificial saliva reduced the corrosion resistance of cpTi (p < 0.05). PEO and GDP treatments improved the surface properties by enrichment of the surface chemistry with bioactive elements and increased surface energy. PEO produced a porous oxide layer (5-μm thickness), while GDP created a very thin oxide layer (0.76-μm thickness). For the PEO group, the authors noted rutile and anatase crystalline structures that may be responsible for the corrosion barrier improvement and increased microhardness values. Plasma treatments were able to enhance the surface properties and electrochemical stability of titanium, while increasing proteinadsorption levels.