Creation and validation of the anti-racism efficacy measure: factor analysis and measurement invariance
This study develops and validates the Anti-Racism Efficacy Scale (A-RES), a 4-item measure that examines (1) competence, or self-rated ability to challenge racism and (2) impact, the degree to which an individual believes they may create change in working against racism. Drawing on a sample of 1322 college students, including 26.6% White, 20.6% Black, 17.1% Latinx, 25.3% Asian or Pacific Islander, 1.2% American Indian, and 9.3% indicating either nothing, other or more than one racial grouping, we test for measurement invariance, conduct a factor analysis, and use ANOVA to compare factor scores by racial grouping. Past literature on antiracism has either not focused explicitly on efficacy, or has not developed means to measure it. The A-RES scale assesses the extent to which individuals feel they are capable of exerting some impact on racism in society.
CitationEschmann, R., Thompson, J. G., Harbaugh, A. G.Copeland, P. (n.d.). Creation and validation of the anti-racism efficacy measure: factor analysis and measurement invariance. SN Social Sciences, 3(4), 66-. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43545-023-00645-3