University of Illinois at Chicago
journal.pone.0047395 (1).pdf (143.51 kB)

Safety of over Twelve Hundred Infant Male Circumcisions Using the Mogen Clamp in Kenya

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posted on 2013-10-31, 00:00 authored by Marisa R. Young, Robert C. Bailey, Elijah Odoyo-June, Tracy E. Irwin, Walter Obiero, Dedan O. Ongong’a, Jacinta A. Badia, Kawango Agot, Sherry K. Nordstrom
Background: Several sub-Saharan African countries plan to scale-up infant male circumcision (IMC) for cost-efficient HIV prevention. Little data exist about the safety of IMC in East and southern Africa. We calculated adverse event (AE) rate and risks for AEs associated with introduction of IMC services at five government health facilities in western Kenya. Methods: AE data were analyzed for IMC procedures performed between September, 2009 and November, 2011. Healthy infants aged ≤2 months and weighing ≥2.5 kg were eligible for IMC. Following parental consent, trained clinicians provided IMC services free of charge under local anesthesia using the Mogen clamp. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to explore AE risk factors. Findings: A total of 1,239 IMC procedures were performed. Median age of infants was 4 days (IQR = 1, 16). The overall AE rate among infants reviewed post-operatively was 2.7% (18/678; 95%CI: 1.4, 3.9). There was one severe AE involving excision of a small piece of the lateral aspect of the glans penis. Other AEs were mild or moderate and were treated conservatively. Babies one month of age or older were more likely to have an AE (OR 3.20; 95%CI: 1.23, 8.36). AE rate did not differ by nurse versus clinical officer or number of previous procedures performed. Conclusion: IMC services provided in Kenyan Government hospitals in the context of routine IMC programming have AE rates comparable to those in developed countries. The optimal time for IMC is within the first month of life.


This study was made possible through funding from the Male Circumcision Consortium (grant #47394). FHI 360 and the University of Illinois at Chicago, working with the Nyanza Reproductive Health Society, are partners in the Male Circumcision Consortium, which is funded by a grant to FHI 360 (www. from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ( Support to RCB was also provided by the Chicago Developmental Center for AIDS Research.


Publisher Statement

© 2012 Young et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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