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Second Language Processing Shows Increased Native- Like Neural Responses after Months of No Exposure

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posted on 18.09.2012, 00:00 by Kara Morgan-Short, Ingrid Finger, Sarah Grey, Michael T. Ullman
Although learning a second language (L2) as an adult is notoriously difficult, research has shown that adults can indeed attain native language-like brain processing and high proficiency levels. However, it is important to then retain what has been attained, even in the absence of continued exposure to the L2-particularly since periods of minimal or no L2 exposure are common. This event-related potential (ERP) study of an artificial language tested performance and neural processing following a substantial period of no exposure. Adults learned to speak and comprehend the artificial language to high proficiency with either explicit, classroom-like, or implicit, immersion-like training, and then underwent several months of no exposure to the language. Surprisingly, proficiency did not decrease during this delay. Instead, it remained unchanged, and there was an increase in native-like neural processing of syntax, as evidenced by several ERP changes-including earlier, more reliable, and more left-lateralized anterior negativities, and more robust P600s, in response to word-order violations. Moreover, both the explicitly and implicitly trained groups showed increased native-like ERP patterns over the delay, indicating that such changes can hold independently of L2 training type. The results demonstrate that substantial periods with no L2 exposure are not necessarily detrimental. Rather, benefits may ensue from such periods of time even when there is no L2 exposure. Interestingly, both before and after the delay the implicitly trained group showed more native-like processing than the explicitly trained group, indicating that type of training also affects the attainment of native-like processing in the brain. Overall, the findings may be largely explained by a combination of forgetting and consolidation in declarative and procedural memory, on which L2 grammar learning appears to depend. The study has a range of implications, and suggests a research program with potentially important consequences for second language acquisition and related fields.


Support for this project was provided to MTU by the National Institutes of Health under RO1 MH58189 and RO1 HD049347; to KMS by a Georgetown University Dissertation Fellowship, by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) under National Research Service Award (NRSA) F31 MH67407, and by the National Science Foundation under Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant 0446836 (formally to MTU); and to IF by Coordenac¸a˜o de Aperfeic¸oamento de Pessoal de Nı´vel Superior (CAPES) (Brazil). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Publisher Statement

© 2012 Morgan-Short et al. The original version is available through PLoS One at DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032974


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