University of Illinois at Chicago
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Sleep-Opt-In: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study to Improve Sleep and Glycemic Variability in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a technology-assisted behavioral sleep intervention (Sleep-Opt-In) and to examine the effects of Sleep-Opt-In on sleep duration and regularity, glucose indices, and patient-reported outcomes. Short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are associated with reduced glycemic control and greater glycemic variability. Methods: A randomized controlled parallel-arm pilot study was employed. Adults with type 1 diabetes (n = 14) were recruited from the Midwest and randomized 3:2 to the sleep-optimization (Sleep-Opt-In) or Healthy Living attention control group. Sleep-Opt-In was an 8-week, remotely delivered intervention consisting of digital lessons, sleep tracker, and weekly coaching phone calls by a trained sleep coach. Assessments of sleep (actigraphy), glucose (A1C, continuous glucose monitoring), and patient-reported outcomes (questionnaires for daytime sleepiness, fatigue, diabetes distress, and depressive mood) were completed at baseline and at completion of the intervention. Results: Sleep-Opt-In was feasible and acceptable. Those in Sleep-Opt-In with objectively confirmed short or irregular sleep demonstrated an improvement in sleep regularity (25 minutes), reduced glycemic variability (3.2%), and improved time in range (6.9%) compared to the Healthy Living attention control group. Patient-reported outcomes improved only for the Sleep-Opt-In group. Fatigue and depressive mood improved compared to the control. Conclusions: Sleep-Opt-In is feasible, acceptable, and promising for further evaluation as a means to improve sleep duration or regularity in the population of people with type 1 diabetes.


Center for Clinical and Translational Science Award U54 | Funder: National Institutes of Health (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences) | Grant ID: UL1TR002003

Sleep and Circadian Regulation in Diabetic Retinopathy: The Role of Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells and Melatonin Supplementation | Funder: National Institutes of Health (National Eye Institute) | Grant ID: R01EY029782



Martyn-Nemeth, P., Duffecy, J., Quinn, L., Steffen, A., Baron, K., Chapagai, S., Burke, L.Reutrakul, S. (2023). Sleep-Opt-In: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study to Improve Sleep and Glycemic Variability in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes. Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care, 49(1), 11-22.


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