The Alternative Splice Variant of Protein Tyrosine Kinase 6 Negatively Regulates Growth and Enhances PTK6-Mediated Inhibition of beta-Catenin
journal contributionposted on 2011-05-27, 00:00 authored by Patrick M. Brauer, Yu Zheng, Mark D. Evans, Carmen Dominguez-Brauer, Donna M. Peehl, Angela L. Tyner
Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6), also called breast tumor kinase (BRK), is expressed in epithelial cells of various tissues including the prostate. Previously it was shown that PTK6 is localized to epithelial cell nuclei in normal prostate, but becomes cytoplasmic in human prostate tumors. PTK6 is also primarily cytoplasmic in the PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma cell line. Sequencing revealed expression of wild type full-length PTK6 transcripts in addition to an alternative transcript lacking exon 2 in PC3 cells. The alternative transcript encodes a 134 amino acid protein, referred to here as ALT-PTK6, which shares the first 77 amino acid residues including the SH3 domain with full length PTK6. RT-PCR was used to show that ALT-PTK6 is coexpressed with full length PTK6 in established human prostate and colon cell lines, as well as in primary cell lines derived from human prostate tissue and tumors. Although interaction between full-length PTK6 and ALT-PTK6 was not detected, ALT-PTK6 associates with the known PTK6 substrates Sam68 and b-catenin in GST pull-down assays. Coexpression of PTK6 and ALT-PTK6 led to suppression of PTK6 activity and reduced association of PTK6 with tyrosine phosphorylated proteins. While ALT-PTK6 alone did not influence b-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity in a luciferase reporter assay, it enhanced PTK6-mediated inhibition of b-catenin/TCF transcription by promoting PTK6 nuclear functions. Ectopic expression of ALTPTK6 led to reduced expression of the b-catenin/TCF targets Cyclin D1 and c-Myc in PC3 cells. Expression of tetracyclineinducible ALT-PTK6 blocked the proliferation and colony formation of PC3 cells. Our findings suggest that ALT-PTK6 is able to negatively regulate growth and modulate PTK6 activity, protein-protein associations and/or subcellular localization. Fully understanding functions of ALT-PTK6 and its impact on PTK6 signaling will be critical for development of therapeutic strategies that target PTK6 in cancer.
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants DK044525 and DK068503 (A.L.T.), and Department of Defense (DOD) grant 81XWH-05-1-0111 (D.P.). P.M.B. was supported by a DOD Predoctoral Traineeship Award, Army W81XWH-06-1-000.
Publisher Statement© 2011 Brauer et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The original version is available through the Public Library of Science at DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014789.
PublisherPublic Library of Science