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Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Plastic and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery: A Scoping Review
journal contributionposted on 2023-08-11, 18:28 authored by Nicolas Kaplan, Mitchell Marques, Isabel Scharf, Kevin Yang, Lee AlkureishiLee Alkureishi, Chad PurnellChad Purnell, Pravin PatelPravin Patel, Linping ZhaoLinping Zhao
Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have evolved since their introduction to medicine in the 1990s. More powerful software, the miniaturization of hardware, and greater accessibility and affordability enabled novel applications of such virtual tools in surgical practice. This scoping review aims to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the literature by including all articles between 2018 and 2021 pertaining to VR and AR and their use by plastic and craniofacial surgeons in a clinician-as-user, patient-specific manner. From the initial 1637 articles, 10 were eligible for final review. These discussed a variety of clinical applications: perforator flaps reconstruction, mastectomy reconstruction, lymphovenous anastomosis, metopic craniosynostosis, dermal filler injection, auricular reconstruction, facial vascularized composite allotransplantation, and facial artery mapping. More than half (60%) involved VR/AR use intraoperatively with the remainder (40%) examining preoperative use. The hardware used predominantly comprised HoloLens (40%) and smartphones (40%). In total, 9/10 Studies utilized an AR platform. This review found consensus that VR/AR in plastic and craniomaxillofacial surgery has been used to enhance surgeons' knowledge of patient-specific anatomy and potentially facilitated decreased intraoperative time via preoperative planning. However, further outcome-focused research is required to better establish the usability of this technology in everyday practice.
CitationKaplan, N., Marques, M., Scharf, I., Yang, K., Alkureishi, L., Purnell, C., Patel, P.Zhao, L. (2023). Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Plastic and Craniomaxillofacial Surgery: A Scoping Review. Bioengineering, 10(4), 480-. https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering10040480