Barriers and Facilitators to HPV Vaccine Uptake Among US Rural Populations: A Scoping Review [Post-Print]
Author Post-print. Full text available June 2021.
Purpose: Compared to US urban populations, rural residents have a higher incidence of HPV-related cancer and lower HPV vaccine coverage. This study determined what is known about barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake in US rural settings.
Methods: A scoping review was conducted to describe individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community/societal barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine initiation and completion among US rural populations and to identify gaps in the current research. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL databases.
Results: A total of 1,083 abstracts were reviewed and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. Major themes at the individual-level included caregiver and vaccine-recipient demographics, other immunizations received, pap test history, awareness/knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV vaccine, or HPV infection, attitudes and motivation to vaccinate, STD diagnosis, sexual behavior, cervical cancer history, contraceptive use, and cancer fatalism. Interpersonal themes focused on provider influence and communication, caregiver and peer influence, and social support for the caregiver. At the organizational-level, themes included health insurance, provider characteristics, school-based interventions, and provider/practice-based interventions. The only community/societal factor examined related to a social marketing campaign.
Conclusion: Additional research is needed on interpersonal, organizational, and community/societal factors, as well as an expanded focus on rural males. Future studies should account for rural heterogeneity by expanding the geographic areas studied. Our findings detailing factors found to be associated with HPV vaccine uptake will help inform future clinical, health services, and community research, as well as interventions and policy efforts.
Keywords: Disparities; HPV vaccine; HPV vaccine uptake; Human papillomavirus; Rural health.