Biomimetic Coated Titanium Dental Implants For Improved Osseointegration
thesisposted on 2017-10-27, 00:00 authored by Joshua M Hassan
Hypothesis: An implant coatingg comprising thecomprised of a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of osteogenic MSCs has the potential to improve osseointegration by promoting increased MSC attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Objective: To provide in vitro research that will assess the implant surface for the presence of key osteogenic proteins via immunohistochemical analysis, as well as Quantitative real-time PCR to document changes in gene expression levels of osteogenic growth factors, transcription factors, ECM proteins. Methods: HMSCs were seeded on to titanium implants and cultured for specific periods of time under the influence ofin an osteogenic differentiation mediuma. The purpose of which was to identify the ideal minimal time interval and number of cells required to optimally coat implants with ECM and evaluated via fibronectin staining, a common ECM protein. The implants were decellularized using standardized methods leaving behind an ECM coating on surface. The coated implants were re-seeded with HMSCs for 2 weeks and underwent proliferation studies and PCR analyses to quantify proliferation and differentiation of stems cells into an osteogenic lineage. Uncoated implants seeded with HMSCS served as controls. Results: The ideal time interval and number of cells required to optimally coat implants with ECM was 2 weeks with 200k cells. The presence of pro-osteogenic structural and functional proteins on the biomimetically coated titanium surfaces was verified using confocal microscopy. Results indicate that HMSCs show improved proliferation and differentiated into an osteogenic lineage compared to non coated control roughened surface implants. This was as evidenced by a significant increase in proliferation rate and a statistically significant fold changes in expression levels of osteogenic genes such as specific transcription factors and growth factors. Conclusions:. Results provide proof of concept to support feasibility of generating biomimetic ECM on titanium dental implants and its effectiveness ability to significantly enhance in promoting stem cell recruitment, attachment, proliferation and differentiation.