One Gap. Two Gaps. Universality in High Temperature Superconductors
thesisposted on 13.12.2012, 00:00 by Junjing Zhao
One of the goals in contemporary condensed matter physics, is to understand various emergent properties of matter due to many body interactions --- e.g. superfluidity, superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistance and so on. Superconductors, discovered more than a century ago, have the remarkable property of zero resistance to electrical current below certain temperatures, commonly known as critical temperatures (Tc). The Tc value for conventional superconductor is relatively low, less than 30K, while it could be as high as 150K for a new class of materials, known as high temperature superconductors (HTSCs). The mechanism behind superconductivity in conventional superconductors can be well understood under the framework of the famous BCS (Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer) theory, while for HTSCs, it is still a mystery. Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES), which directly probes the momentum space structure of a physical system, has been instrumental to provide new insights in understanding various strongly correlated systems --- particularly the HTSC materials. In this thesis, I will present and discuss our recent research on various Bi2212 HTSCs using ARPES. For the first time, we provided the spectroscopic evidence for the three distinct phases in the normal state of Bi2212 HTSC. By comparing the systematic ARPES data of pure Bi2212 and cation-doped Bi2212 HTSCs, we found that introducing different elements would not only change the carrier concentration, but also create additional disorders inside the system, which is responsible for the different spectroscopic properties. In additon, we found that the deviation from d-wave gap anisotropy in cation-doped Bi2212 is correlated to the lack of coherent spectral peaks. I will also give an overview of the synthesis of La-doped Bi2212 single crystals by using floating zone technique. Even though the La content varies along the crystal growth direction, our crystals are of the pure Bi2212 crystal structure, and their carrier concentrations are in the underdoped side of the superconducting dome.