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Public Policy Effects on Education, Labor Supply, and Housing

thesis
posted on 2023-08-01, 00:00 authored by Shogher Ohannessian
Chapter 1: The Effect of the SSI Student Earned Income Exclusion on Education and Labor Supply Youth with disabilities face financial constraints to attaining post-secondary education and encounter strong labor market disincentives when considering employment opportunities. Encouraging human capital development through employment and education could help young Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients transition off SSI reliance and improve their long-run economic self-sufficiency. I study the effect of the Student Earned Income Exclusion (SEIE), an education- and work-incentive for youth with disabilities receiving SSI benefits. The SEIE enables SSI recipients under age 22 to exempt $1,930 of their monthly earnings from the SSI benefits determination if they are enrolled in school. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and a regression discontinuity design, I compare changes in SSI recipients’ education and labor decisions in the months surrounding the strict age-22 SEIE eligibility cutoff. I find the SEIE causes SSI recipients to increase school enrollment by 8.6 percentage points and increase employment by 8.4 percentage points. The findings suggest that the SEIE helps relax binding financial constraints for SSI recipients to attend college while revealing a substantial preference for employment among these recipients. Chapter 2: Do EITC eligibility rules encourage college enrollment? EITC benefits are substantially more generous for households with more qualifying children, and children ages 19-23 only qualify if they enroll in college. These eligibility rules result in an implicit college attendance subsidy – up to $4,000 per year. The maximum subsidy is targeted at households earning approximately $20,000, so it represents a large fraction of both total earnings and net tuition. We find no evidence that college enrollment responds to these substantial financial incentives and can statistically rule out moderate effects. Chapter 3: The Effect of Pro-tenant Policies on Land Rents of Mobile Home Parks In the United States, several states have implemented pro-tenant policies with the aim of reducing the likelihood of unjustified evictions by mobile home park owners. This study specifically examines the effect of the resident ownership (RO) policy, which enables park residents to collectively purchase their community as a cooperative. The RO policy offers potential benefits to tenants by safeguarding against redevelopment or unauthorized sales of the mobile home park without their consent. However, there is a concern that the policy may lead to higher land rents if landlords incorporate this factor into rent prices before the conversion to a resident-owned community takes place. This paper analyzes the effects of the RO policy on land rent and finds that it has a small positive effect.

History

Advisor

Hembre, Erik

Chair

Hembre, Erik

Department

Economics

Degree Grantor

University of Illinois at Chicago

Degree Level

  • Doctoral

Degree name

PhD, Doctor of Philosophy

Committee Member

Ost, Ben Lubotsky, Darren Qureshi, Javaeria Deshpande, Manasi

Submitted date

August 2023

Thesis type

application/pdf

Language

  • en

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