Social-Cognitive Factors and Exercise Behavior among Thais
thesisposted on 07.12.2012 by Ornwanya Poomsrikaew
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Social-Cognitive Factors and Exercise Behavior among Thais Ornwanya Poomsrikaew, Ph.D. Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (2011) Dissertation Chairperson: Julie J. Zerwic, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN, Professor and Executive Associate Dean The purpose of this study was; 1) to examine the relationship of perceived risk, outcome expectancies, perceived self-efficacy, and intention on exercise behavior; and 2) to examine the effect of age and gender on the relationship between social-cognitive factors and exercise behavior. The Health Action Process Approach model (HAPA) was applied in the study. A 660-convenience sample of people aged 18 years or older (n = 618) was recruited from public locations in Thailand. The mean age was 37 ± 10.88 (18-68) and 51.6% were women. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Self-administered questionnaires measured: (a) demographics, (b) perceived risk of heart disease, (c) exercise outcome expectancies, (d) exercise self-efficacy, (e) intention to exercise, and (f) exercise behavior. The questionnaires were translated into Thai language using back-translation. Path models were estimated using Amos 18. The sample was divided into two groups; middle-aged adults (36 years or older) and younger adults (less than 36 years older). The main findings found that only outcome expectancies and perceived self-efficacy were significant predictors of intention to exercise. Outcome expectancies and perceived self-efficacy for exercise explained 39% of the total variance in intention. Unexpectedly, in this study, perceived risk of heart disease was not a significant predictor of intention to exercise. Intention to exercise, as a mediator in the hypothesized model, was a significant predictor of exercise behavior in public Thais. Also, perceived self-efficacy was a direct significant predictor of exercise behavior. In this study, exercise behavior among Thai people was explained 16% by the hypothesized model. Differences across age (2(4) = 17.352, p < 0.01) and gender (2(5) = 10.155, p < 0.05) groups on the relationships between social-cognitive predictors and exercise behavior were found in this study. The final models showed a better fit in the middle-aged group and women compared to younger-aged individuals and men. Interventions that enhance intention to exercise through outcome expectancies and perceived self-efficacy may be effective. Interventions may be more effective if they target particular age and gender groups.