16 S Pyrosequencing of the Oral Microbiome in Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Periodontitis
Kibler, Rebecca J.
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While certain red complex bacteria (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola) have been identified as pathogens in periodontal disease, multiple other microbes, as well as various host and environmental factors, specifically smoking, have been shown to have a role in the development and progression of periodontal disease. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, new bacteria, that had escaped detection by previous technologies employed, are now being identified as having equal associations with diseased sites as the classically described microbes. However results among studies are conflicting. The present study used 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing to detect microbial presence and frequency in periodontitis sites and the lateral border of the tongue in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis. Sub-gingival paperpoint samples in healthy and periodontally diseased sites, as well as cotton swab samples from the lateral border of the tongue were collected from 16 non-smokers and 8 smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. The present study identified smokers as having statistically significant differences in the microbiome of periodontally diseased sites, healthy gingival sites, and on the lateral border of the tongue compared to non-smokers. Additionally, some bacteria exhibited site-specific preferences for either the tongue or the gingival sulcus. It is possible that smoking selects for a different microbial population in the presence of periodontitis compared to non-smokers. Further studies are needed using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to strengthen associations between bacteria present in diseased sites and on the lateral border of the tongue in smokers compared to non-smokers.