Numerical Simulation of Mechanical Response of Geomaterials from Strain Hardening to Localized Failure
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The Sandia GeoModel is a continuum elastoplastic constitutive model which captures many features of the mechanical response for geological materials over a wide range of porosities and strain rates. Among the specific features incorporated into the formulation are a smooth compression cap, isotropic/kinematic hardening, nonlinear pressure dependence, strength differential effect, and rate sensitivity. This study attempts to provide enhancements regarding computational tractability, domain of applicability, and robustness of the model. A new functional form is presented for the yield and plastic potential functions. The model is also furnished with a smooth, elliptical tension cap to account for the tensile failure. This reformulation renders a more accurate, robust and efficient model as it eliminates spurious solutions attributed to the original form. In addition, this constitutive model is adopted in bifurcation analysis to track the inception of new localization and crack path propagation. For the post-localization regime, a cohesive-law fracture model, able to address mixed-model failure condition, is implemented to characterize the constitutive softening behavior on the surface of discontinuity. To capture propagating fracture, the Assumed Enhanced Strain (AES) method is invoked. Particular mathematical treatments are incorporated into the simulation concerning numerical efficiency and robustness issues. Finally, the aforementioned modified cap plasticity model is employed to investigate the nonlinear dynamic response of the earthen substructure of the rail. Studying the effects of high-speed trains on the track substructure.