Risk of cancer-specific, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality among Asian and Pacific Islander breast cancer survivors in the United States, 1991-2011.
MetadataShow full item record
Asian and Pacific Islander (API) women in the United States (U.S.) are a heterogeneous group reported to have better prognosis after breast cancer (BC) compared to their Non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. Few studies have examined differences in BC survival between individual API ethnic groups. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 462,005 NHW and 44,531 API women diagnosed with incident, stage I-III BC between 1991 and 2011 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 18 registries. SEER-reported API ethnicity was grouped as Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Vietnamese, Asian Indian and Pakistani, and Pacific Islander. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for risk of BC-specific, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality comparing API to NHW women. We also estimated mortality risk comparing U.S.-born to non-U.S.-born women. Compared to NHW women, API women overall had lower BC-specific, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. BC-specific mortality risk was lowest among Japanese women (HR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.63-0.77). Other women had similar (Filipino, HR 0.93, 0.86-1.00; Hawaiian, HR 1.01, 0.89-1.17) or greater (Pacific Islander, HR 1.44, 1.17-1.78) risk of BC-specific death. Compared to non-U.S. born API women, findings were suggestive of increased cardiovascular (HR 1.12, 1.03-1.20) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.29, 1.08-1.54) among U.S.-born API women. Mortality risk varies greatly between BC survivors from different API backgrounds. Further research is warranted to understand these disparities in BC survivorship and the social and cultural factors that possibly contribute to greater mortality among later-generation API women born in the United States.