Upper-Extremity Deep-Vein Thrombosis: A Retrospective Cohort Evaluation of Thrombotic Risk Factors at a University Teaching Hospital Antithrombosis Clinic.
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BACKGROUND: Upper-extremity deep-vein thrombosis (UEDVT) causes significant morbidity and mortality and is not well characterized in the existing literature, particularly in underrepresented minorities such as African Americans. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of a cohort of patients with UEDVT seen at an urban academic medical center. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study among patients with a confirmed UEDVT at the University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System between 1996 and 2011. Patients were identified by ICD-9 code for UEDVT. Variables collected include thrombotic risk factors and outcomes, including recurrent thrombosis and bleeding. RESULTS: We identified 229 patients with UEDVT; 71% were African American, and 11% were diagnosed with sickle cell disease. The average number of UEDVT risk factors was 4.40 ± 1.5, the most common being central venous catheter (CVC) use (178, 78%). In the year following UEDVT, 13% experienced recurrent thrombosis, and 6% experienced major bleeding. Of 181 patients receiving warfarin after an UEDVT, 36% of international normalized ratio (INR) values were therapeutic. Patients with sickle cell disease had a lower proportion of INRs within the target range (25% vs 38%, P < 0.01), and were more likely to be lost to follow-up (67% vs 46%, P = 0.05) and experience a recurrent thrombotic event (29% vs 11%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: A CVC is the most common risk factor for UEDVT; however, patients with sickle cell disease demonstrate additional unique demographics and risk factors. Patients included in this underrepresented demographic cohort had a low quality of anticoagulation control, particularly those with sickle cell disease.
sickle cell disease
upper-extremity deep-vein thrombosis