Implementation of Electronically Controlled Pneumatic Brake Formulation in Longitudinal Train Dynamics Algorithms
Aboubakr, Ahmed K.
Shabana, Ahmed A
PublisherInstitution of Mechanical engineers
MetadataShow full item record
The main goal of this investigation is to integrate an ECP (electronically controlled pneumatic) brake model with efficient longitudinal train force algorithms based on the trajectory coordinate formulations. The ECP brake model, developed in this investigation consists of the train line (cable), locomotive automatic brake valve, air brake pipe, and ECP manifold. The train line, which covers the entire length of the train, allows the brake commands to be received by the car simultaneously. While pneumatic pressure is used to generate the braking forces, the brake pipe is no longer used to provide the brake level commands. Instead, the brake pipes are used to provide a continuous supply of compressed air stored in a reservoir mounted on each railcar. Using the ECP system to apply the brakes uniformly and instantaneously gives better train control, shortens the stopping distances, and leads to a lower risk of derailment. In this investigation, the fluid continuity and momentum equations are used to develop the governing air pressure flow equations. These partial differential equations are converted to a set of ordinary differential equations using the finite element (FE) method leading to an air brake force model that accounts for the effect of the air flow in long train pipes as well as the effect of leakage and branch pipe flows.The car brake forces are applied to the wheels using the ECP manifold located in each car. The ECP manifold used in this investigation has four valves; cut-off valve, vent valve, auxiliary valve, and emergency valve. The ECP manifold is connected to three main pneumatic components; the auxiliary reservoir, the emergency reservoir, and the brake cylinder. The reservoirs serve as the main storage of the pressurized air, while the brake cylinder and other mechanical components such as the rigging and the brake shoes transmit the brake force to the wheels. In this investigation, a mathematical model of the ECP manifold and its components is developed. The relationship between the main components of the ECP brake system and the train dynamics is discussed, and the final set of differential equations that integrates the ECP brake and train dynamics is presented. Different simulation scenarios are considered in this study in order to investigate the effect of the brake forces on the train longitudinal dynamics in the case of different braking scenarios. The performance of the developed ECP brake system are compared with the Association of American Railroads (AAR) safety and operation standards, and with experimental results published in the literature.
SubjectFreight train braking
ECP brake system
nonlinear longitudinal train dynamics