The Simulations of the Urban Logistics Land Use and Associated Logistics Chains for Policy Insights
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The globalization of supply chain networks and the advances in the Information and Communication Technologies have significantly changed logistics practices over the last several decades. Modern logistics operations that prioritize the cycle time reduction require larger logistics facilities than ever before. These changes in the logistics sector, when combined with the growth and further densification of cities, have led to the spatial restructuring of logistics-related land use that often entails the outward migration of logistics facilities. While researchers and practitioners have voiced concerns over the potential increase in negative externalities associated such restructuring, such as congestions, emissions, noises, vibrations and traffic accidents, the actual levels of impacts and the policies that can alleviate them have not been sufficiently studied in the past. To address this gap, this research carries out four broad tasks: (1) the empirical analysis of the spatial reorganization of the urban systems and its impacts, (2) the development of a simulation model for analyzing logistics facility distribution and associated urban freight traffic, (3) the evaluation of various scenarios of logistics facility distribution and, (4) the analysis of different policy options and the evaluation of the impacts. The data from the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, the largest metropolitan area in the world, are used for all the tasks. The results of the analyses shed the light on the relationships among policies, the spatial distribution of logistics facilities, urban logistics chains, and the externalities. The policy insights for reducing the externalities associated with urban freight are also obtained.