Diabetes Self-Care Management in African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes
Hall, Monica E
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Background: Diabetes disproportionately affects minority populations in the United States. African Americans have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and diabetes related complications. According to the American Diabetes Association, effective diabetes self-management along with optimal glycemic control will decrease or eliminate this disparity. Successful diabetes self-management requires continuous monitoring and can be influenced by many different factors. This study examines how self-efficacy, general diabetes knowledge, social support and psychological insulin resistance predict diabetes self-management in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a convenience sample was developed to gather information from African Americans with type 2 diabetes age 18 years or older. All information regarding a subject’s self-efficacy, general diabetes knowledge, social support, psychological insulin resistance and diabetes self-management was gathered on-line. Results: Overall, diabetes self-management was poor, with subjects reporting to following important aspects of management on just 2 – 4 days out of the previous week (exercise: 2.83 days, glucose testing: 4.20 days and healthy eating: 4.26 days). Self-efficacy and social support were positively correlated to healthy eating (r = .274 & .344), exercise (r = .145 & .235), glucose testing (r = .201& .223) and foot care (r = .186 & .264) respectively (p < .05). Psychological insulin resistance was negatively correlated to healthy eating (r = -.144), exercise (r = -.186) and glucose testing (r = -.171) (p < .05). General diabetes knowledge was negatively correlated to exercise (r = -.164) & foot care (r = -.272) (p < .05). Social support was the only predictor to significantly predict more than one aspect of diabetes self-management. Conclusions: Social support contributed significantly predicted general diet (healthy eating), exercise and foot care. Considering social support was significantly correlated to self-efficacy and psychological insulin resistance, the findings overall suggest social support, self-efficacy, and psychological insulin resistance play an important role in diabetes self-management.
SubjectType 2 diabetes, African American, psychological insulin resistance, diabetes self-management